ls-ls-nltr.jpg THE OLD WAR HORSE
VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1,           JANUARY, 2005
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A quick jump to most of the articles in this issue:
Commander's Comments, Adjutant's Report, January Program (next), November Program (last),
Camp Officers, Longstreet's First Corps, Christmas Banquet,

As historians, we of the SCV are well aware of what happened
on  the  military front subsequent to the fall of Petersburg
in 1865.  Most of us can recite the events which followed in
all   of  their  fascinating  detail  up  to  and  including
Appomattox, but a great many of us are not as familiar  with
the   activities   of  President  Jefferson  Davis  and  the
Confederate civil government during that period.   It  is  a
story  as  fascinating as the exploits of Robert E.  Lee and
the Army of Northern Virginia.                              

As the  situation  in  Petersburg  deteriorated  Lee  warned
Davis,  "You  must not be surprised if calamity befalls us."
Lee and Davis had been discussing the inevitable  evacuation
of  Petersburg  and Richmond for some time and on April 2nd,
Lee sent urgent word to the President, "I  advise  that  all
preparation be made for leaving Richmond tonight." Jefferson
Davis received Lee's note while attending a service  at  St.
Paul's   Church  and  immediately  left  for  the  Executive
Mansion.  There he informed  his  wife  and  family  of  the
impending  disaster  and made arrangements for them to leave
as soon as possible  for  the  safety  of  Charlotte,  North
Carolina.   The  President then gathered some belongings and
boarded a train for Danville, Virginia, his  plan  being  to
meet  Lee at that city.  He departed the Confederate Capital
at 11:00 PM arriving in Danville, some 145 miles distant, at
4:00  PM the next day.  It was then that Danville became the
Capital of the  Confederacy,  with  Davis  and  his  Cabinet
setting   up  office  in  the  home  of  the  mayor.   Davis
entertained no thought  of  ending  the  War,  as  he  fully
expected  Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia to make good
their  escape  from  General  Grant  and  to  rendezvous  at
Danville.   It  was  there  that  he  was  informed that the
impossible had happened.  Lee had surrendered at Appomattox.

Stunned but not dismayed, Davis  knew  that  Joe  Johnston's
army  was  still conducting operations in North Carolina and
he decided to move the government to Greensboro with an  eye
to  being  nearer to General Johnston.  From Greensboro, the
government moved to Charlotte on the 18th of April and  upon
his   arrival  in  that  city  Davis  was  informed  of  the
assassination of Abraham Lincoln.  The  President  expressed
his  genuine sorrow at Lincoln's death, but still hoped that
Johnston could somehow elude Union General Sherman and  make
his  way west, but on April 24th Johnston was also forced to

Jefferson Davis who  had  always  professed  that  he  would
rather  have  been a field commander than President, decided
personally to lead any  remaining  Confederate  troops  that
would  follow  him  and  attempt to link up with Confederate
Generals Taylor and Forrest then still operating in Alabama.
The  President  held  his  last Council of War in Abbeville,
South Carolina.   It  was  there  that  the  five  remaining
Confederate  generals  in attendance unanimously advised him
that to continue the War would be foolish and  nothing  more
than  a  pointless  exercise in futility.  Davis was visibly
shaken.  He pondered the situation in  silence  for  a  long
moment,  finally  saying,  "Then all is indeed lost." Escape
then became the primary objective, as large forces of  Union
cavalry  were  now hunting the President and his party.  The
plan became to escape to Mexico or perhaps the  West  Indies
where  they  could  establish  a  government  in  exile  and
continue  the   attempts   to   establish   an   independent

Davis  and his party rode to Washington, Georgia where after
joining his wife and her party,  he  bid  farewell  to  what
troops  had  remained  with him and set out with a volunteer
escort of some  20  Confederate  cavalrymen.   The  combined
party  was  encamped in clearing a mile north of Irwinville,
Georgia when near dawn on May 10th, 1865, firing broke  out.
The  President  and Mrs.  Davis were asleep in a tent when a
contingent of Federals burst  into  the  camp.   The  firing
increased  as  two Union Cavalry Regiments, the 4th Michigan
and the 1st Wisconsin  approached  the  camp  from  opposite
directions.   Each  thinking  the  other  to  be Confederate
infantry protecting Davis, the Federals spent a considerable
amount of time shooting their own troops.                   

Now  fully  awake  and as undaunted as ever, Jefferson Davis
decided to make good his escape on foot.  The weather  being
inclement with rain falling on the combatants, the President
was wearing a water repellent coat with wide, loose sleeves.
As  he ran from the tent and headed for the nearby woods, he
also wore a shawl that his ever attentive  wife  had  placed
around  his  shoulders while he slept.  It was thus that the
completely false stories of Jefferson Davis fleeing  capture
dressed as a woman began to circulate.                      

As  the  President  neared the woods, he was challenged by a
Federal cavalryman on horseback.  Other cavalry  approached,
warning  that  he would be shot if he did not stop.  Full of
fight as always, Davis prepared to attempt a tactic  he  had
learned from the Indians during his days on the frontier.  It
was entirely possible  to  unhorse  a  mounted  opponent  by
grabbing   his   foot   and   forcing  it  upwards,  thereby
unbalancing  the  rider  enough  to  make  him  fall.    The
riderless  horse  could then be "commandeered" and an escape
could be made.  But just as the President was  preparing  to
execute  this  bold  maneuver  on  the nearest Federal, Mrs.
Davis fearing for the life of her husband, ran  between  him
and  the  Union  cavalry,  through her arms around Davis and
begged the troopers not to shoot.  The end had finally come.

Jefferson Davis was imprisoned at Fortress Monroe,  Virginia
and  indicted  on  a  charge  of  treason by a grand jury in
Norfolk.  He remained a prisoner until May 13, 1867 when  he
was  released  on  a  $100,000  bond  secured  by  Cornelius
Vanderbilt,   Garrit   Smith   and   Horace   Greeley,   all
exceptionally  wealthy  Northerners  and  all  staunch Davis
admirers.  The  case  against  Davis  never  came  to  trial
because  in  December  of 1868, all charges against him were
dropped by the United States Government.  Now  a  free  man,
Jefferson  Davis  traveled  extensively throughout the U.S.,
Canada and England.  Wherever he went he received  a  hero's
welcome,  especially  in the North.  Davis received many job
offers  after  the  War,   including   the   Presidency   of
Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Virginia, but he declined
that offer.  He eventually accepted the  presidency  of  the
Carolina  Life  Insurance  Company  which carried with it an
annual salary of $12,000.a tremendous amount in that day.   

Davis made his first public speech after the  War  during  a
visit  to  Richmond  in  1870.   It was a eulogy of his good
friend and Compatriot Robert E.  Lee who had died on October
12th  of  that same year.  The former President spoke at the
First  Presbyterian  Church  and  received   "a   storm   of

Jefferson  Davis died in New Orleans at 12:45 PM on December
6,  1889.   By  his  side  and  holding  his  hand  was  his
ever-faithful  and  devoted  wife.   The  President  of  the
Confederacy  now  lies  at  rest  in  Richmond's   Hollywood
Cemetery.  It has been said that with the death of Jefferson
Davis came the death of the  Confederacy.   Of  course  that
simply  is  not true because as we all know, the Confederacy
is alive and well, living on in the hearts and minds of  all
true  Southerners.   And  what the President himself said of
Robert E.  Lee certainly holds  true  for  Jefferson  Davis;
".with  an  eye  fixed  upon the welfare of his country, (he
never faltered) to follow the line of duty to the end."     



General R.E.  Lee kept a pet chicken while on campaign!  She
laid  an  egg,  which provided his breakfast, under his camp
bed each morning, but she disappeared on  July  4,  1863  at
Gettysburg,  and  the  General was quite upset until she had
been found and he could once again enjoy her daily breakfast
			         The Civil War Book of Lists

Clifton Pierce, a real son who was an associate Camp member,
passed  at  the age of 92 on December 29, 2004.  Mr.  Pierce
and his wife attended meetings often  until  they  moved  to
South Carolina in 2003.  We extend our sympathy to his widow
and other family members.                                   

We have received membership certificates  from  headquarters
for  David  W.   Forrest  and  William J.  Wallace, III, who
submitted their applications to us at the November  meeting.
Dave's  ancestor Charles Firth was a private in Company F of
the  32nd  Virginia  Infantry.   Will  is   descended   from
Brigadier  General John Rogers Cooke, a brigade commander in
Heth's Division of  the  3rd  Corps.   We  extend  a  hearty
Longstreet  welcome  to  the  new members and plan to induct
them soon.                                                  

One of the maps distributed by Ed Bearss  at  the  Christmas
banquet  revealed that Andrew Dunn of Longstreet's staff was
in the group accompanying Longstreet when  the  General  was
wounded  at  the  Wilderness.  Our older son is named Andrew
Dunn Tucker, who received that  name  long  ago  before  our
interest  in  The  War was significant.  Longstreet's Andrew
Dunn,  according  to  Robert  E.   Lee  Krick's  outstanding
reference   book   Staff  Officers  in  Gray,  was  born  in
Londonderry,  Ireland  17  December  1822.   He   lived   in
Petersburg  and  is buried in Blandford Cemetery.  There are
four other Dunns and two Tuckers included in Bobby's book. I
can find a family connection with none.  Bobby's book can be
checked out of the Henrico  County  Public  Library  or  the
Library of Virginia.                                        

In  the  acknowledgements  of  his  staff officer book Bobby
wrote  about  Gary  Gallagher:  "Clearly   no   person   now
associated  with  Civil  War  history  has a broader or more
positive influence than Professor Gallagher." An  economist,
author  of  a  recent  book  about America's 16th president,
wrote in his book that a  book  of  essays  edited  by  Gary
included a statement that states rights was a post-Civil War
invention.  Gary's book said no such thing.  When challenged
on  his  misstatement,  the economist refused to acknowledge
his error and danced all around the issue.                  

John Marshall: Definer of a Nation by Jean Edward Smith  has
a  chapter entitled The Fight for Ratification, which covers
the 1788 Virginia convention considering the  United  States
Constitution.   States rights was a key issue.  Although not
present, Thomas Jefferson  had  strong  ideas  in  favor  of
states  rights.  Patrick Henry was an eloquent spokesman for
states rights and against ratification of the  Constitution.
John Marshall argued the case for ratification.  The list of
others involved in the  Virginia  convention  reads  like  a
Who's Who of Virginia's (and the nation's) founding fathers.
The final vote was  89  in  favor  of  ratification  and  79
against.  Smith writes, "A group of staunch anti-federalists
met to plan strategy to prevent the establishment of  a  new

Henry  was  sent for and asked to preside.  He accepted, but
once in the chair told his supporters that although  he  had
opposed  the  Constitution,  he  had  done so `in the proper
place.' The question was now settled,  said  Henry,  and  he
advised   those   present   that   `as   true  and  faithful
republicans,' they had all better go home."                 

Several events are scheduled in the next two months to honor
Confederate  heroes.   The  Virginia  Division of the SCV in
conjunction with the UDC will have a ceremony at  the  State
Capitol  Friday  January 14 (Virginia's official Lee-Jackson
state holiday) at 7:00 PM honoring the  memory  of  Generals
Robert E.  Lee and Stonewall Jackson.                       

The   Stonewall  Brigade  SCV  Camp  of  Lexington  has  the
following schedule for Saturday, January 15:                

10:00AM Memorial service Stonewall  Jackson  grave  site  in
Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery.                        

11:00  AM  Parade  of  re-enactors  and  supporters  through

12:00 Noon Lee Chapel service conducted  by  Reverend  Lloyd

On January 15, the Pickett Society will present a wreath and
have a brief ceremony at 11:30 AM at the Pickett Monument in
Hollywood  Cemetery  to  honor  the only Confederate general
born in Richmond.  A lunch follows,  but  the  deadline  for
that was January 7.                                         

On   Saturday  January  22  at  11:00  AM  the  Stuart-Mosby
Historical Society will have a ceremony at the State Capitol
honoring General Lee, General Jackson, and Commodore Matthew
Fontaine Maury.  The speaker at this 11:00 AM ceremony  will
be Brigadier General Lewis M.  Helm.                        

The  same society will honor General J.E.B.  Stuart February

Let us stand tall for our Confederate ancestors by  honoring
their memory.                                               

				Walter Tucker




Our speaker for January will be Mike Gorman of the  National
Park  Service  here  in  Richmond who will make a PowerPoint
presentation about the hospitals in our city during the  War
Between the States.                                         

Mike has spoken to us before in 2001 on the web site that he
maintains on Richmond in the War, which is  a  really  great
source for history buffs across the country.  If you haven't
checked   it   recently,   you   should.     The    address:                                     

This  should  prove to be a really interesting presentation,
so plan to come and help us to welcome him back.            

Karen Kinzey

Karen Kinzey of  the  National  Park  Service  gave  a  very
interesting   presentation,   replete   with  slides,  about
Arlington House at our November 16 meeting.                 

For many years after The War Between The  States,  Arlington
House  was  used  as the headquarters building for Arlington
National Cemetery.  In 1900 a  13  year-old  Virginia  girl,
Frances   Parkinson,   visited   and   was  shocked  at  the
deteriorated condition of this home of her favorite  figure,
Robert E.  Lee.  She vowed to do something about it.        

Prior  to  The War, Arlington was one of the finest homes in
the nation to  which  Americans  made  pilgrimages.   George
Washington  Parke Custis, the grandson of Martha Washington,
built the home between 1802 and 1818 as a shrine  to  George
Washington.  Custis had grown up at Mount Vernon and revered

Custis married Molly Fitzhugh, who bore him  four  children.
Mary  was  the only one who survived.  She married Robert E.
Lee 30 June 1831.  They had seven children between 1832  and

Mary  spent  much  time  at  Arlington while Lee traveled to
various Army posts and duties.  He  was  at  Arlington  most
Christmases  and  regarded  it as home.  In 1847 Lee said of
Arlington, "Where my affections  and  attachments  are  more
strongly  placed  than at any other place in the world." Lee
felt that it was a person's duty to improve  everything  for
which he was responsible.                                   

When  Virginia  seceded  from  the  Union in April 1861, Lee
spent a sleepless night deciding what  he  should  do.   The
other family members heard him pacing the floor and praying.
He decided that he  could  not  take  up  arms  against  his

Mary  Custis Lee didn't stay at Arlington long after The War
started.  She turned the keys over to Selena Gray,  a  slave
described  by  a  noted  American  history professor as Mrs.
Lee's best friend.  Yankees occupied the estate and promptly
began  stealing  Washington  artifacts.  Selena Gray and the
Yankee commanding general combined to save  some  Washington

The nefarious Yankee Brigadier General Montgomery Cunningham
Meigs ordered Yankee soldiers to be buried at Arlington.  He
wanted graves right next to the house.                      

The  Lee  family  was never permitted to return to Arlington
after The War.   Mary  Custis  Lee  never  got  over  losing

After   Robert   E.   Lee's  death  his  oldest  son  George
Washington Custis, Lee sued the central government  to  have
Arlington  returned  to  the  family.   After many years the
Supreme Court ruled in his  favor.   Rather  than  requiring
that  15,000 soldiers be dug up and buried elsewhere, Custis
Lee accepted a cash settlement from the  central  government
in exchange for title to the property.                      

In  the  1920's  Frances Parkinson Keyes became an associate
editor of Good Housekeeping magazine.  Her U.   S.   Senator
husband  and  Congressman  Louis  Cramton,  son  of a Yankee
soldier, persuaded Congress to  pass  a  law  requiring  the
Secretary  of  War  to  restore  Arlington  to its condition
immediately prior to The War.                               

The insidious chairman of the Commission of Fine Arts (CFA),
Charles  Moore  paid no attention to Congress.  He wanted to
erase Robert E.  Lee from the history of Arlington and  have
it  as  a  memorial  to the Custis family.  CFA demanded the
removal  of  three  mantels  and  replaced  them  with  fake
colonial  mantels.   Rooms  were  converted into things that
never existed.  Mrs.  Lee's beloved garden was destroyed.   

Three events in the 1930's led to a course correction in the
right  direction.   Over  the  strong  objections of the War
Department, responsibility for Arlington was transferred  to
the  National  Park  Service  in  1933.   The following year
Douglas Southall Freeman's four volume biography  of  Robert
E.   Lee  was  published.   The movie Gone With The Wind was
released in 1939 and became one of the most popular films of
all time.                                                   

The absurd colonial revival at Arlington was abandoned.  Some
original furnishings were  returned  to  the  home.   Murray
Nelligan   made   Arlington  the  subject  of  his  Ph.   D.
dissertation,  which  stimulated  interest  in  the   proper
restoration  of  the  mansion.  In 1955 the original mantels
were restored.  Also in that year Congress passed Public Law
107  which  decreed  that Arlington House was dedicated as a
permanent memorial to Robert E.  Lee.  Arlington would  also
emphasize Lee's role in reuniting the country after The War.
The official name is now Arlington House, The Robert E.  Lee

Many  of  the original furnishings at Arlington are on loan.
The Park Service would like to own them and will be  pleased
to  accept donations to achieve this goal.  Checks should be
made out to Arlington House, the Robert E.  Lee Memorial and
mailed to:                                                  

Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial
c/o George Washington Memorial Parkway     
Turkey Run Park                            
McLean, VA 22101                           

Our Camp made a donation at the conclusion of Ms.   Kinzey's

We  are  indeed  fortunate  that years ago courageous people
stood up for the right against the  ominous  tide  and  have
given  us  this  wonderful  memorial.  Let us do our part to
assure that Arlington House remains worthy  of  one  of  the
greatest men in the history of our countries.               


Commander: Harry Boyd                 741-2060
1st. Lt. Cmdr.: Taylor Cowardin       356-9625
2nd Lt. Cmdr.: Michael Kidd	      270-9651
Adjutant/Treasurer: Walter Tucker     360-7247
Quartermaster: R. Preston Nuttall     276-8977
Chaplain: Henry V. Langford           340-8948


Webmaster: Gary F. Cowardin           262-0534
War Horse:  David P. George           353-8392


The following is a cumulative listing of contributors to the
upkeep  of  “The  Old  War  Horse” for the period July, 2004
through  the  current  month. As you  know,  our  cumulative
listing starts in July of each year.                        

Lloyd Brooks
Phil Cheatham
Brian Cowardin
Gary Cowardin*
Taylor Cowardin
Ron Cowardin
Raymond Crews
Lee Crenshaw
Chris Jewett
Jack Kane*
Michael Kidd
Frank Marks
Joe Moschetti
Richard Mountcastle
Ken Parsons
Lewis Mills
Norman Plunkett+
Bill Setzer
Austin Thomas
Walter Tucker*
David Ware
Hugh Williams

* - Multiple contributions               
+ - Visitor Donation                     

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