ls-ls-nltr.jpg THE OLD WAR HORSE
VOLUME 7, ISSUE 4,           APRIL, 2005
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A quick jump to most of the articles in this issue:
Commander's Comments, Adjutant's Report, April Program (next), March Program (last), Camp Officers,
Longstreet's First Corps, New Compatriots, Raffle Winner, Calendar, Feature Articles, SCV News,


The Siege of Petersburg, Virginia, proved to be the  longest
campaign  of the War Between the States, one in which Robert
E.  Lee conducted a masterful defense of "The Cockade  City"
prolonging  not  only  the  life  of  the  Army  of Northern
Virginia,  but  assuring  the  survival  of   Richmond   and
ultimately  the  survival  of  the entire Confederacy for an
additional  9  «  months.   To  the  casual  or  uninitiated
observer,  the  Siege  of  Petersburg is often viewed as one
event, lengthy but not very exciting.  After all, a  "siege"
can  be defined as "a long, distressing or wearying period,"
and many people have come to think of Petersburg  as  simply
the  somewhat uneventful prelude to the fall of Richmond and
the drama of Appomattox.  However, nothing could be  further
from  the  truth.   No  fewer than 13 major engagements took
place during that "long, wearying  period,"  each  of  great
importance  in  and  of  themselves,  and at least one Union
General was relieved  of  command  for  his  mishandling  of
troops in combat.  Hardly boring times.                     

In  fact, Petersburg may be viewed militarily as a microcosm
of the entire War; "the War in a nutshell" so to  speak,  as
every  conceivable  tactical  maneuver of the day was put in
play by one or both sides.  There was  the  street-to-street
fighting  of  June  9,  1864.   There  were  the  covert and
undercover operations leading to the surprise assault at the
Crater.   There  was the grand strategy of the attack on the
Weldon Railroad.   There  was  the  spectacle  of  the  mass
infantry charge at Fort Stedman, and the deadly pageantry of
the cavalry charge at Five Forks where Fitz Lee  fended  off
repeated   attacks  of  George  Custer's  Federal  horsemen.
Without a doubt, the battlefields of Petersburg  provided  a
stage  for  the theatrics of warfare to be acted out in full
measure.  The drama of war during the  Siege  of  Petersburg
occasioned  many  strange  and inexplicable events, but none
was more bewildering or more tragic than the death of one of
the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia's most trusted and capable
leaders, General A.  P.  Hill.                              

Ambrose Powell Hill was born in Culpeper, Virginia, in 1825.
He graduated from West Point, entered the United States Army
serving in Mexico and against the  Seminole  Indians.   When
secession  overtook  Virginia,  Hill like many of his fellow
officers resigned his commission and entered the service  of
the  Confederacy.  He distinguished himself at the Battle of
Williamsburg in the  1862  Peninsula  Campaign,  and  was  a
"tower  of  strength"  during  the Seven Days Battles around
Richmond.  Hill saved the  day  for  the  Army  of  Northern
Virginia  at the Battle of Antietam when he reinforced Lee's
right flank at the last possible moment to repel an  assault
by  Union  General  Burnside.   When  Stonewall  Jackson was
mortally wounded  at  Chancellorsville,  it  was  Hill  whom
Jackson  directed  to  assume  command, and after recovering
from a wound received later in the battle, Hill was promoted
to  lieutenant  general in May of 1863.  He was subsequently
given command of the newly constituted Third Corps,  and  at
Gettysburg  he  directed  the  figh f the first day although
suffering from a debilitating illness.                      

At Petersburg, A.  P.  Hill and the  Third  Corps  held  the
western  end  of  the Confederate line, where at dawn on the
morning of April 2, 1865, the Union Army broke  through  the
Southern  defenses  at  what is now Pamplin Historical Park.
General Hill was meeting with Generals Lee and Longstreet at
the Turnbull House when a frantic courier burst in with news
of the breach  in  Hill's  line.   The  General  immediately
excused  himself  and  along with three members of his staff
quickly rode toward the threatened portion of the field.  The
party  was attempting to reach the Pickerall House, then the
headquarters of Major General Henry Heth, but  soon  Federal
skirmishers  were encountered along the intended route.  His
party taking several prisoners,  Hill  ordered  two  of  his
escort  to  deliver the Federals to General Lee while he and
his orderly, a  Sergeant  Tucker,  continued  toward  Heth's
headquarters,  but large numbers of Union troops now blocked
their path along the Boydton Plank Road.   Hill  and  Tucker
took to the woods in an effort to skirt the Yankee force and
make contact with Heth's line.                              

According to Sergeant Tucker, the General had been unusually
quite  and  pensive  during  the  entirety  of  their  ride,
speaking only a few  words,  but  suddenly  Hill  broke  his
silence.   "Sergeant,  should anything happen to me you must
go back to General Lee and report it." The startled Sergeant
agreed.   Very  shortly  thereafter,  the pair came upon two
Federals in the wood-line.  Corporal John Mauk  and  Private
David  Wolford of the 138th Pennsylvania Infantry had fought
in the breakthrough earlier that morning,  had  reached  the
South  Side  Railroad  along  with a number of other Federal
troops, and were returning to their commands when  they  saw
"two   men   on  horseback  coming  from  the  direction  of
Petersburg, who had the appearance of officers."            

It is here that the mystery begins.  Hill, for reasons known
only  to  him  and over the expressed objections of Sergeant
Tucker,  determined  to  take  the  two   lone   Northerners
prisoner.  He drew his pistol and rode to within 10 yards of
the Yankees who had by this time taken cover behind a  large
tree.   As  the  General  and  his Sergeant approached, both
Federals fired.   Private  Wolford's  shot  went  wide,  but
Corporal  Mauk's  round found its mark, severing Hill's left
thumb, continuing into his chest where it struck his  heart,
and  exiting  through  his back.  The commander of the Third
Corps was killed instantly, dead before he hit the ground.  

The circumstances surrounding the death of A.  P.  Hill  are
puzzling in the extreme.  Why did the commander of an entire
corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, in the  midst  of  a
rapidly  deteriorating  military  situation with the fate of
the Confederate capital at stake, feel compelled to  go  out
of  his way to take two totally insignificant Union soldiers
prisoner?  He and his courier could have  easily  maneuvered
around  the  Pennsylvanians  and continued on their intended
mission to reach Henry Heth on another part  of  the  field.
Gravely  concerned  for  Hill's  safety,   Sergeant   Tucker
strongly counseled against approaching the Federals who were
already behind cover, with weapons at  the  ready.   Indeed,
the  courageous  Sergeant admonished the General to stay out
of harm's way and allow him (the Sergeant)  to  attempt  the
apprehension.   Hill  would not listen.  It was almost as if
he intended the consequences of his actions.                

Did  A.  P.  Hill commit suicide in a grove of pine trees on
the outskirts of  Petersburg?   He  had  stated  on  several
occasions  that  he  did not wish to survive the fall of the
Confederacy, and the military situation  at  that  point  in
time  was grim to say the least.  The Siege of Petersburg by
Union forces was coming to a  close.   Federal  troops  were
tightening  the noose on a Confederate army weakened by lack
of food, supplies, medicine, and desertion.  Southern troops
were  deserting  by  the hundreds, many compelled to go home
and care for starving women and children who were  suffering
the privations of U.  S.  Grant's version of "total war."   

If  Petersburg fell, so too did Richmond and then the entire
Confederacy.  Any soldier possessive of the intelligence and
experience  of  A.   P.  Hill could not help but realize the
end was near.  Hill was  tired,  stressed,  overworked,  and
above  all  ill.   His chronic ailments had taken their toll
not only upon his health but  on  his  mental  faculties  as
well.   What  better  way  to  escape the destruction of the
Confederacy then to die a warrior's death on  the  field  of
battle  at  the  hands  of the enemy?  While it can never be
proven, it remains a possibility.                           

Another possibility is that Hill was suffering from what was
known  at  the  time  as  "the fog of war;" a condition that
would come to be known in later  years  as  battle  fatigue.
Physically  and  mentally  exhausted, the General simply may
not have "been thinking straight" when he detoured from  his
mission  to accost two inconsequential Union soldiers for no
military  purpose  whatsoever.   Whatever  the  reason,  the
Confederacy lost one of its most capable leaders.           

Upon hearing of Hill's death, General Lee wept, stating, "He
is now at rest, and we who are left are the ones to suffer."
Buried at first in a private cemetery in Chesterfield County
and later in Richmond's Hollywood Cemetery, A.  P.  Hill was
eventually  interred  under  a  large monument in the city's
suburbs where present day Laburnum Avenue and Hermitage Road

We  may  never know what crossed the General's mind early on
that April morning, but we do know that A.  P.  Hill  was  a
shining  example  of  Southern manhood, possessive of honor,
pride and devotion to duty; qualities that won him and those
like  him the respect and admiration of friend and foe alike
as champions of a noble and just cause.   General  Hill,  we
salute you!                                                 

Deo Vindice                             


Camp member Ben Baird had emergency eye surgery recently  at
Virginia  Eye  Institute.   We  understand that recovery may
take some time.  We wish Ben the best.                      

"Grow" seems to be the motto of our  Camp.   At  our  recent
meeting  we  inducted  new  members  David  Morin and Peyton
Roden.  In addition we have three  members,  Joseph  Keller,
Gene  Lyon,  and  John  Stevens, who have transferred to our
Camp from another local camp.                               

We  have   received   from   headquarters   the   membership
certificate  of  Matthew  Warren Ferguson, whose ancestor is
Captain Edmond Macon Ware of the 5th Virginia  Cavalry.   We
shall  induct  him at a meeting in the near future.  Matthew
was brought to our Camp by his uncle, David Ware.  David  is
one of our best recruiters.  It was great to have David back
with us after his recent surgery.                           

What a great turnout at the March meeting.   There  were  40
members  and  11  guests.   David  Ware's sister Martha Ware
Petro wrote on the  guest  signup  sheet  by  her  New  York
address," I only live there I'm not a Yankee."              

Please  plan to help out at the road cleanup Saturday, April
16.  We'll meet at Enon Church, Studley  Road  (Route  606),
Hanover County at 10:00 AM.                                 

By the time you receive this, we'll be well into Confederate
Heritage and History month.   Celebrate  your  heritage  and
honor your ancestor by speaking up for Confederate heroes. I
had the privilege in late March to give my  Monument  Avenue
slide presentation at a meeting of a senior group at a local
church.  Each time, as I prepare and then give this talk,  I
am   inspired   by   the  courage,  dedication,  hard  work,
patriotism, religious faith, and sacrifice of the men  whose
statues  are  on  Monument Avenue.  Douglas Southall Freeman
said of the years  he  spent  researching  and  writing  his
biographies  of George Washington and Robert E.  Lee that he
had been in  good  company.   I  feel  the  same  way.   How
fortunate  we  have been in our Camp to have had programs in
the last two Camp meetings about Stonewall Jackson  and  Jeb
Stuart which put us all in great company.                   

Let me urge all Camp members to attend the Virginia Division
Convention May 20-22 at the Sheraton Inn,  6624  West  Broad
Street.   As  the host camp, we want to make a good showing.
It will be helpful even if  you  attend  only  the  business
session.   Harry  Boyd,  his  wife Barbara, Taylor Cowardin,
Mike Kidd, and  others  have put  in  a  lot  of  hard  and 
effective work planning the Convention.  The best way we can
thank them and show our appreciation for their efforts is to
attend the Convention.                                      

				Walter Tucker





The speaker for April will be Dr. Louis H. Manarin. 

Dr.  Manarin is a prolific author,  renowned  historian  and
former  State  Archivist  of  the Commonwealth.  His writing
career spans over four decades, starting in  1961  with  his
earliest books, The Wartime Papers of R.  E.  Lee and also A
Guide to Military Organizations and Installations  which  he
edited   for   the  North  Carolina  Confederate  Centennial
Commission.  These were followed by:                        

1963-Directory of Officials 1861-1865                        
1965-The Bloody Sixth (as co-author with R. W. Iobst)        
1966-North Carolina Troops 1861-1865                         
1966-Richmond at War (as Editor)                             
1969-Richmond Volunteers                                     
1979-Lee in Command                                          
1983-In God's Service: Chamberlayne Baptist Church 1853-1953 
1984-The History of Henrico County                           
1986-Sir Thomas Dale                                         
    1986-Cumulative Index, The Confederate Veteran Magazine 1893-1932
1988-Directory of Repositories in Virginia                   
1990-15th Virginia Infantry                                  
2001-Richmond on the James (as Co-author with G.W, Rogers)   
2004-Henrico County- Field of Honor                          

Dr.  Manarin will speak about the role of Henrico County and
its  residents  during  the  War Between the States and will
discuss his new book, Henrico County - Field of Honor.      

Be sure to come to  this  meeting  to  hear  Dr.   Manarin's
presentation  and  meet  him  in  person.   Let's give him a
hearty Longstreet welcome!                                  



For the second straight month our  speaker  stated  that  he
wanted to focus on the man rather than the soldier.         

Tom Perry grew up in Patrick County and became interested in
James Ewell Brown  Stuart  when  he  read  Virginia  Highway
historical  marker KG-2 which told of Stuart's birthplace at
Laurel Hill, which  home  came  from  the  family  of  Jeb's
mother,  the  Pannills.  Tom's slides throughout the program
told us that he's been lots of  places  where  other  Stuart
aficianados haven't.                                        

Laurel   Hill   burned  in  1848.   Thanks  to  Tom  Perry's
dedication and hard work there is now at  Ararat,  VA  a  75
acre park with interpretive signs marking the location.  Tom
with tongue in cheek laughingly said  he  did  this  because
he's still mad at being born in North Carolina.             

The  original  Jeb  was  the  eighth  child  and last son to
survive of William Alexander Stuart  and  Elizabeth  Letcher
Pannill  Stuart.  Young Jeb looked up to his brother William
Alexander Stuart, Jr.  who  ran  the  vital  salt  works  in
Saltville during The War.                                   

Jeb  went  away  to  school  at age 12 and entered Emory and
Henry College at age 15.   Having  promised  his  mother  he
would  never  drink,  he  became  active  in  the temperance

Once when he stopped at Monticello, he chipped off  a  piece
of  stone  as a souvenir.  Always an observer of the ladies,
he wrote that the women in Charlottesville were the  ugliest
he'd ever seen.                                             

On  leave from West Point, Jeb visited Betty Hairston of the
plantation Beaver Creek, near Martinsville.  She saved Jeb's
letters.  That house still stands.                          

After  West  Point Jeb served with the 1st US Cavalry, where
one of his best friends was John  Sedgwick.   He  spent  six
years   in  Kansas,  where  he  owned  land  and  wrote  for
newspapers.  He  met  and  Married  Flora  Cooke  there  and
founded a church.  In 1856 he met John Brown.               

Jeb was at the War Department October 1859 and was sent with
Robert E.  Lee and  a  contingent  of  Marines  to  Harper's
Ferry, where John Brown attempted to lead a slave revolt and
was holed up in the fire station.                           

Tom showed us a slide  of  Fort  Bent,  CO,  where  Jeb  was
stationed  1860-61.  He resigned from the US Army 3 May 1861
and returned to his native Virginia.  He was sent to Harpers
Ferry to serve under Thomas J.  Jackson.                    

Jeb's father-in-law remained in the US Army, despite being a
Virginian.  Jeb and Flora changed the name of their son from
Philip St.  George Cooke Stuart to James Ewell Brown Stuart,

In 1863 Stuart began losing people  close  to  him,  as  his
sister Flora, his artilleryman the Gallant Pelham, his banjo
player Sam Sweeney, and  Stonewall  Jackson  died.   Despite
their miles-apart temperaments, Stuart and Jackson respected
and liked each other.                                       

In yet another irony, in May  1864  the  initial  battle  at
Spotsylvania  took  place  at  Laurel  Hill.   Stuart's good
friend from the pre-war Army, Union  General  John  Sedgwick
was killed there.                                           

On  the way to counter Sheridan's move to Richmond, Jeb said
goodbye to Flora at the Fontaine House.  Stuart's troop  was
outnumbered 2 to 1 at Yellow Tavern.  To an officer who came
to him after his wounding he said,  "Go  back  and  do  your
duty.  I'd rather die than be whipped."                     

Taken  to  Richmond,  Stuart  was  visited  by Jefferson and
Varina Davis.  Before Flora could get to him,  he  sang  his
favorite hymn, Rock of Ages, and said, "I am resigned. God's
will be done.                                               

Upon hearing of Stuart's death, General Lee said, "He  never
brought me a piece of bad information.  I can scarcely think
of him without weeping."                                    

Jeb Stuart, Jr.  served in the United States Army during the
Spanish  American  War  and  is buried in Arlington National
Cemetery.  His rank of Captain was the same as that  of  his
father in the US Army.                                      

Tom  Perry's mother has planted forsythia at the birthplace.
The yellow blooms remind us that yellow was the color of the
cavalry,  and  the  soldier whom many regard as the greatest
cavalryman in this country's  history  received  his  mortal
wound at Yellow Tavern.                                     

Listening   and   watching  intently  at  Tom's  outstanding
presentation were the original Jeb's direct descendants  Jeb
Stuarts, IV, and V, and Daryl Cooke and Will Wallace, direct
descendants of Flora  Cooke  Stuart's  brother  John  Rogers
Cooke.   Unfortunately, Jeb Stuart IV had a commitment which
did not permit him to be with us.                           



Commander: Harry Boyd 741-2060 1st. Lt. Cmdr.: Taylor Cowardin 356-9625 2nd Lt. Cmdr.: Michael Kidd 270-9651 Adjutant/Treasurer: Walter Tucker 360-7247 Quartermaster: R. Preston Nuttall 276-8977 Chaplain: Henry V. Langford 340-8948


Webmaster: Gary F. Cowardin 262-0534 Website: War Horse: David P. George 353-8392



The following is a cumulative listing of contributors to the
upkeep  of  “The  Old  War  Horse” for the period July, 2004
through  the  current  month. As you  know,  our  cumulative
listing starts in July of each year.                        

Ben Baird
Lloyd Brooks
Phil Cheatham
John Coski §
Brian Cowardin*
Clint Cowardin
Gary Cowardin*
Ron Cowardin*
Taylor Cowardin
Raymond Crews*
Lee Crenshaw
John Deacon*
Jerold Evans
Pat Hoggard*
Charles Howard 
Chris Jewett
Jack Kane*
Michael Kidd
Ann Lauterbach+
Frank Marks
Lewis Mills
Conway Moncure
Jerry Morris
Joe Moschetti
Richard Mountcastle*
Ken Parsons
Norman Plunkett §*
Joseph Seay
Bill Setzer
Will Shumadine
Austin Thomas
Walter Tucker*
John Vial
David Ware
Hugh Williams
Bobby Williams

* - Multiple contributions                 
§ - Visitor Donation                       
+ - in memory of Past Cmdr. Tom Lauterbach 



We are delighted to welcome Peyton and David to our Camp! If
you did not meet them in March, please introduce yourself to
them at the April meeting.                                  

Let's give these men a hearty Longstreet  welcome  and  make
them  feel that they are indeed a part of the finest Camp in
the Confederation!                                          


Our March raffle produced two winners! David Ware receiving a print of Mosby and his men. John Vial receiving a small wad of Confederate currency. J.E.B Stuart, VI was the smiling presenter of both prizes!


SLIM'S LAW Any significant military action will occur at the junction of two or more map sheets. Field Marshall Viscount Slim of Burma (World War II for you youngsters!) CONSERVATIVE VS. LIBERAL A conservative sees a man drowning 50 feet from the shore, throws him a 25-foot-long rope, and tells him to swim to it. A liberal throws him a rope 50 feet long, then drops the end and goes off to perform another good deed. KIND WORDS You can get more with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word. A SOBERING THOUGHT Just before being blasted off into orbit Astronaut Wally Schirra was asked by Dr. E.R. Annis, "What concerns you the most?" Schirra thought and then replied, "Every time I climb up on to the couch [in the capsule] I say to myself,' Just think, Wally, everything that makes this thing go was supplied by the lowest bidder.'"


APRIL 9,10 33rd Annual American Civil War Show, Dulles Expo Center (South Building), Chantilly. Saturday 9-5, Sunday 10-2. Sponsored by Northern Virginia Relic Hunters Association. For info, John Graham, 703-823-1958 or APRIL 16, 17 Civil War Adventure Camp with Civil War immmersion experience at Pamplin Historical Park, Petersburg. Musket firing, mortar shooting, medical field program, soldier food, communications. For info: 877-PAMPLIN; APRIL 23 "Beyond April, 1865" Symposium at the Library of Virginia, Richmond. Hosted by the Museum of the Confederacy. Speakers include: Noah H. Trudeau, Mark Bradley, David Blight. For info: Dr. John Coski, 804-649-1861, ext. 27. MAY 6-8 Dixie Days on over 100 acres at Pole Green Park, Hanover, VA. Encampments, tacticals and skirmishing. Infantry, artillery and cavalry demonstrations. 4th grade students on Friday. Reenactor bounties. Free to public. Hosted by Cold Harbor Guards, Camp 1764, SCV. For info: MAY 14 "Impregnable Works or Wretchedly Defective Line? Taking a Closer Look at Spotsylvania's Earthworks" 141st anniversary of the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House walking tour over the Bloody Angle & Lee's Last Line, led by Historian Mac Wycoff, Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. Free, 1-4 pm. Meet at the Bloody Angle parking area at driving tour stop #14. Covers two miles, wear comfortable walking shoes and carry water. For info: 540-373-6122 or 540-786-2880;


Beauvoir, home of Jefferson Davis in Biloxi, Mississippi


On April 30, 1864, at the White House of the Confederacy in Richmond, little Joe, the five year old son of Jefferson and Varina Davis, fell from the back balcony of the house into the yard and was grievously injured, dying the next day. This was a terrible blow to President Davis and his wife.


To his sister Mrs. Anne Marshall: Arlington, Virginia April 20, 1861 My Dear Sister, I am grieved at my inability to see you...I have been waiting for a 'more convenient season' which has brought many before me deep and lasting regret. Now we are in a state of war which will yield to nothing. The whole South is in a state of revolution, into which Virginia, after a long struggle, has been drawn; and though I recognize no necessity for this state of things, and would have forborne and pleaded to the end for redress of grievances, real or supposed, yet in my own person I had to meet the question whether I should take part against my native State. With all my devotion to the Union and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the Army, and save in the defense of my native State, with the sincere hope that my poor services may never be needed, I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword. I know you will blame me; but you must think as kindly of me as you can, and believe that I have endeavoured to do what I thought right. To show you the feeling and struggle it has cost me, I send you a copy of my letter of resignation, I have no time for more. May God guide and protect you and yours, and shower upon you everlasting blessings, is the prayer of your devoted brother. R. E. Lee Arlington, Virginia April 20, 1861 To General Scott: General: Since my interview with you on the 18th inst. I have felt that I ought no longer to retain my commission in the Army. I therefore tender my resignation, which I request you will recommend for acceptance. It would have been presented at once but for the struggle it has cost me to separate myself from a service to which I have devoted the best years of my life, and all the ability I possessed. During the whole of that time more than a quarter of a century-I have experienced nothing but kindness from my superiors and a most cordial friendship from my comrades. To no one, General, have I been as much indebted as to your self for uniform kindness and consideration, and it has always been my ardent desire to merit your approbation. I shall carry to the grave the most grateful recollections of your kind consideration, and your name and fame shall always be dear to me. Save in defense of my native State, I never desire again to draw my sword. Be pleased to accept my most earnest wishes for the continuance of your happiness and prosperity and believe me, most truly yours, R. E. Lee



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