ls-ls-nltr.jpg THE OLD WAR HORSE
VOLUME 7, ISSUE 8,           SEPTEMBER, 2005
SCV logo

A quick jump to most of the articles in this issue:
Commander's Comments, Adjutant's Report, September Program (next), July Program (last), Camp Officers, Longstreet's First Corps,
Chuck's Award, Richmond Blues&Grays, Calendar of Events, Dixie Days, Poem, Richmond Inflation 1863, Snapshot Corner, Editor's Note,


It is with great pride and honor that I write this, my first
"Commander's  Comments."  To  be  elected  commander  of the
Longstreet Camp, a camp comprised of such wonderful  people,
is  truly  humbling.  We have such a great camp.  We are not
only  highly  esteemed  in  the  SCV,  we   have   a   great
relationship  with the historical community.  Our commitment
to preserving the legacy  of  our  ancestors  while  staying
above the political strife and infighting has earned us many
laurels.  This is evidenced in the  numerous  transfers  and
new  members  our  camp  has  received.   We  must  be doing
something right!                                            

Next month on Sunday, October 16th  we  will  be  dedicating
grave markers for two of General Longstreet's Staff Officers
at Hollywood Cemetery.  Until now,  the  graves  of  Colonel
John  J.   G.   Clarke  and  Major  Samuel P.  Mitchell have
remained unmarked.  A  Richmond  native,  Col.   Clarke  was
Longstreet's chief engineer and was present at the battle of
Gettysburg scouting out  and  establishing  routes  to  move
Confederate troops around in the unfamiliar territory.  After
the war Col.  Clarke  returned  home  and  became  the  City
Engineer  of  Manchester.  One of the projects he oversaw as
city engineer was the construction of the wooden  Manchester
or  Ninth  Street  bridge.   This bridge stayed in operation
until 1972 when it was replaced by the current bridge.  Major
Mitchell  was  not as fortunate.  He served with the Army of
Northern Virginia until 1863 when  he  died  at  Chickamauga
from diphtheria.  He was only 30 years old.  The least these
two men deserve is a proper marker for each of their graves.

The grave markings above, the Buck Hurt Award, road cleanups
and  financial  support to preserve historical landmarks are
activities that would make our forebears proud.  It  is  our
responsibility  to  see  that  their  proud legacy lives on.
There are many ways to do this; however, we must ensure that
we  remain  civilized  and  do  not tarnish the image of the
Confederate soldier with irresponsible conduct.  Although it
may  be  a  small  amount,  we  do  carry  the  blood of our
confederate ancestors in our veins.  The way we conduct  our
lives  now  in the 21st century, believe it or not, reflects
on  them.   Just  as  they  honored  the  legacy  of   their
ancestors, we must honor ours.                              

As  we  move  into the future I look forward to working with
everyone to help make our goals come to  fruition.   We  not
only  have the best camp in the SCV, we also have one of the
greatest executive committees  as  well.   As  always,  your
officers  will  continue to make you proud to be a member of
the Longstreet Camp!                                        

I look forward to seeing you on the 20th!                   



We have received membership certificates  from  Headquarters
for  two  new  members,  Walter R.  Beam, Jr.  and Robert W.
Vass.  Walt's ancestor Hugh Caldwell  Bennett  was  a  first
lieutenant in Company F, 3rd North Carolina Cavalry. Bobby's
ancestor John S.  Hicks (then spelled Hix) was a  lieutenant
in  Company B, 44th Virginia Infantry.  Lieutenant Hicks was
one of the Immortal 600 Confederate officers taken from  the
Yankee prison at Fort Delaware to Morris Island, Charleston,
SC August 1864 and thence to Fort Pulaski,  GA  in  October,

Membership  application of Richard M.  B.  Rennolds has been
sent to Headquarters.  Richard's ancestor, Albert  Rennolds,
was a captain in Company F, 55th Virginia Infantry.  We plan
to induct these three new SCV members at a  meeting  in  the
near future.                                                

Peter  I.  C.  Knowles, II's application for transfer of his
membership to Longstreet has been certified  and  mailed  to
headquarters.  Peter's ancestor William Washington Wingo was
a private in Company I, 1st Virginia Infantry.              

We welcome Walt, Bobby, Richard, and Peter to the Longstreet

Two  members  who transferred to the newly formed James City
Cavalry Camp, Charles Howard and  David  Ware,  have  become
associate   members  of  Longstreet.   We  appreciate  their
continuing their affiliation with our Camp.                 

A check has been received from Ukrop's for our participation
in  the  Golden  Gift Certificate program.  We shall vote on
what to do with this money at the September meeting.        

Howard Bartholf, Commander of the Army of  the  James  Camp,
Sons of Union Veterans, sent me a copy of a very nice letter
which he wrote to immediate past commander Harry Boyd on the
occasion  of  Harry's  completion  of his tenure as our Camp
commander.  Our Camp has enjoyed a  good  relationship  with
Howard's  camp over a number of years.  Our Camp has enjoyed
a great revival in recent years under the leadership of  Hef
Ferguson,  Chuck  Walton,  and  Harry Boyd.  I'm sure Taylor
Cowardin, with the assistance of the Executive Council  with
its  new  members 1st LCDR Will Shumadine and Judge Advocate
Richard Campbell, will continue this outstanding leadership.

Longstreet bashing is a popular sport.  It began a few years
after   The  War,  when  Jubal  Early  and  others  selected
Longstreet as the scapegoat responsible for the  Confederate
defeat  at Gettysburg.  Typically when something goes wrong,
many involved sit in a circle and point to the person on the
right, saying, "It's his fault." Longstreet Camp founder the
late Bill Mallory, one of  the  most  knowledgeable  amateur
historians   I've   ever   met,   said   about   Gettysburg,
"Southerners spend so much time talking about who  erred  at
Gettysburg  that  they  omit  a  key  factor-90,000 well-led
Yankee soldiers.  Unfortunately for Our General, his postwar
writings  in defense of his actions left much to be desired.
Ed Bearss, retired Chief  Historian  of  the  National  Park
Service   who  spoke  about  Longstreet's  wounding  at  out
Christmas  banquet  last  year,  speaks  favorably  of   the
writings of Stephen W.  Sears.  In his book Chancellorsville
Sears wrote of Our General, "Longstreet could be  stubbornly
opinionated  at  times, but he was never unprepared." In the
event that you're wondering what Longstreet is  doing  in  a
book  about a battle at which he was not present, many Union
officers were convinced that he and his troops were going to
arrive at any time.  They justifiably feared him.           

It's  time  for  renewal  dues  for the year to end July 31,
2006.  If you haven't already paid and don't plan  to  bring
your  dues  to  the September 20th meeting, please mail your
check payable to Longstreet Camp # 1247 in the amount  of  $
45.00  to Walter Tucker, 2524 Hawkesbury Court, Richmond, VA
23233-2426.   Your  promptness  in  handling  this  will  be
greatly  appreciated.   The  new  amount  of annual dues was
approved at our July meeting.                               





Our September speaker will be fellow Longstreet  member  and
Executive  Director  of  the  Museum  of the Confederacy, S.
Waite Rawls III.                                            

He will give a presentation of  the  current  state  of  the
Museum  and  the  Whitw  House of the Confederacy along with
detailing the alternatives they currently face.             


Jack Trammell, wearer  of  several  hats  at  Randolph-Macon
College,  started  off  his talk by stressing the great need
for gunpowder caused by the overall inaccuracy of Civil  War
shooting.   It  took  ten  million  rounds  of ammunition to
inflict 50,000 casualties at Gettysburg!                    

The Confederacy had very little gunpowder at the outbreak of
The   War  Between  The  States.   There  was  no  organized
gunpowder industry in the South.  A gunpowder  mill  existed
in  Lexington, KY in 1802, but it had closed down before The

Nitre, one of three ingredients in gunpowder  (charcoal  and
sulfur  being the other) is found mainly in limestone caves.
No place produced more than two pounds per day.  Most of the
nitre producers turned out less than two pounds per day.    

Even  the  politicians  became aware of the South's problem.
For the first year of The War, the South was dependent  upon
imported gunpowder.  Congress spent a lot of time discussing
the need for nitre  and  gunpowder  and  on  April  1,  1862
created  the  Nitre Bureau.  Isaac Monroe St.  John, a civil
engineer who had worked for the B&O Railroad, became head of
the  Nitre  Corps.   He was a brilliant man and an effective

Confederate Army officers impressed nitre  caves,  of  which
there  were  thousands.   The  Yankees  attempted to disrupt
their operations.  The dispersion of the industry meant that
a  small number of Yankee successes didn't hurt the industry
very much.                                                  

Finding workers proved to be challenging.  Plantation owners
needed  their  slaves and were reluctant to rent them out to
nitre mining  operations.   Some  free  blacks  were  hired.
Yankee  prisoners  were used, but a number of these escaped.
Confederate soldiers were detailed to work in the mines.    

The Confederate government built and owned the Augusta  (GA)
Powder Works.  Josiah Gorgas, Chief of Ordnance, was high in
his praise of St.  John.  A map of resources  was  made.   A
method  of  growing  nitre  was  developed.   Railroads were
needed to transport the nitre to Augusta.  The Yankees never
did  understand  the importance of Augusta.  Some think that
The War would have ended sooner if Sherman  had  gone  there
instead of on his famous march to the sea.                  

The  image  endures  that The War was between the Industrial
North and the Agrarian South.   While  the  South  had  less
industry  than  the  North,  it  was  still  one of the most
industrialized nations in the world.                        

In early 1865, St.  John was named Commissary General of the
Confederate  Army.  He brought some order to this mismanaged
organization, but by then it was too late.  After  The  War,
St.  John returned to working for the railroad.  He had made
a  great,  but  little  appreciated  contribution   to   the
Confederate war effort.                                     



Commander: Taylor Cowardin 356-9625 1st. Lt. Cmdr.: William F. Shumadine, III 285-4044 2nd Lt. Cmdr.: Michael Kidd 270-9651 Adjutant/Treasurer: Walter Tucker 360-7247 Judge Advocate: Richard B. Campbell 278-6488 Quartermaster: R. Preston Nuttall 276-8977 Chaplain: Henry V. Langford 474-1978


Webmaster: Gary F. Cowardin 262-0534 Website: War Horse: David P. George 353-8392


Readers will note that this issue of the War Horse does  not
contain  the  normal  number of photographs.  Unfortunately,
the memory card holding the pictures taken at the  September
meeting  was  inadvertently  reformatted  and  the  data was
destroyed.  Several different recovery  programs  were  used
with no results.                                            

Your Editor apologizes for this mishap.                     



The following is a cumulative listing of contributors to the
upkeep  of  “The  Old  War  Horse” for the period July, 2004
through  the  current  month. As you  know,  our  cumulative
listing starts in July of each year.                        

Ben Baird
Lloyd Brooks
Phil Cheatham
John Coski §
Brian Cowardin*
Clint Cowardin
Gary Cowardin*
Ron Cowardin*
Taylor Cowardin
Raymond Crews*
Lee Crenshaw
John Deacon*
Jerold Evans
Pat Hoggard*
Charles Howard 
Chris Jewett
Jack Kane*
Michael Kidd
Ann Lauterbach+
Frank Marks
Lewis Mills*
Conway Moncure
Kitty Moreau §
Jerry Morris
Joe Moschetti*
Richard Mountcastle*
Preston Nuttall*
Martha Petro §
Ken Parsons
Norman Plunkett §*
Joseph Seay
Bill Setzer
Will Shumadine
Austin Thomas*
Walter Tucker*
John Vial
David Ware
Harold Whitmore
Hugh Williams
Bobby Williams

* - Multiple contributions                 
§ - Visitor Donation                       
+ - in memory of Past Cmdr. Tom Lauterbach 


We were delighted to have Patricia Walton and her daughter, Lia, visit us at the July meeting. They were present to receive a posthumous award, a Certificate of Appreciation, to Past Commander Charles E. "Chuck" Walton from the State Commander of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. This award was to recognize the dedication of Chuck to Longstreet and the SCV and the many, many hours of hard work that he put into the Cause. It was good to see Patricia and Lia and we hope to see them more often. Compatriot Ed Thornton, a long time friend of Chuck's, also presented Lia Walton with a valuable Confederate banknote.


Many of you may not be aware of  the  three  military/social
organizations  that  existed  in Richmond prior to World War
II.  They were the Richmond Blues, The  Richmond  Grays  and
The Richmond Howitzers.  Many prominent Richmonders belonged
to these units.  Here is a photograph of a Sergeant  of  the

CIRCA 1920-1930

If  any  readers  have  photographs  of  the  Blues  or  the
Howitzers  dress uniforms, please let us have a copy to scan
and we will place them in future issues.                    


The date has been set for our Longstreet Christmas  Banquet.
It  will  be held on the evening of December 6, 2005, at the
Westwood Club in Richmond.                                  

Please make sure to mark this date on your calendar so  that
we may have the best turnout ever!                          


THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 2005                                   

The Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond Now is a  good  time
to  take  in  the special exhibit on The Confederate Navy at
the Museum.                                                 

Due to the MCV construction, things are a  little  confused,
but the signs will lead you to the parking deck.            

Hours  are:  Monday  thru  Saturday 10 am-5 pm and Sunday 12
Noon-5 pm.                                                  

For information: 804-649-1861 or

SEPTEMBER 21-24 Third Annual "Americans at War" program at Pamplin Historical Park, Petersburg. Covers American Military History: active duty military and veterans, vehicles, collections, displays. Reenactors and living history demonstrations from colonial times to present. For information: 1-877-PAMPLIN or
SEPTEMBER 25 "The Grafitti House and the Current Findings on the Grafitti," a program by Brandy Station Foundation president, Bob Luddy. 2-3:15 p.m. at Brandy Station. Reservations required. $5 donation fee to the Foundation. For information, Jim at (540) 439-3549 or
SEPTEMBER 30-OCTOBER 2 141st Anniversary of the Battle of Stanardsville in Greene County. Battles Saturday and Sunday, night artillery firing, buggy rides, Civil War Ball, children's games, ladies' tea, period music. Admission $5 per day, $8 for weekend in advance, $7 & $12 at gate. For info, (434)985-6663 or
OCTOBER 7-9 Fifth Annual Image of War Seminar in Richmond. Speakers include Mike Gorman, Eric Mink, Bob Zeller, Heather Milne, Gary Adelman who will discuss or visit sites including Lee's Richmond home, The Museum of the Confederacy, Malvern Hill, Drewery's Bluff, Fort Brady and more. All proceeds benefit The Center for Civil War Photography. For info: Gary Adelman,
OCTOBER 7-9 North-South Skirmish Association 112th National Competition near Winchester, VA. Live fire matches with muskets, carbines, breech-loading rifles, revolvers, mortars and Cannon. Free admission. For information: Bruce Miller, (248) 258-9007,
OCTOBER 8 & 22 Four tours in series throughout the summer and fall: Beverly Ford, St. James Church, Kelly's Ford and Stevensburg, Fleetwood Hill and Buford Knoll and Yew Ridge. From Graffiti House, Brandy Station. 10:00 -12:00 a.m. Sponsored by Brandy Station Foundation. $5.00, under 12 free. For information:, 540-547-4106 or
OCTOBER 15 & 22 Buckingham Railroad event in Dillwyn. Two Autumn Leaf Rambler excursion train roundtrips from Dillwyn to New Canton. Reenactors at Dillwyn Station, riding train, skirmishing trackside, living history presentations. Train Fares $24 adults, $12 children 2-12 yrs. Advance purchase recommended. For information, tickets: Old Dominion Chapter, NHRS, P.O. Box 1771, Glen Allen, VA 23060 or,,
OCTOBER 15, 16 141ST Anniversary Reenactment of the Battle of Cedar Creek on the original battlefield in Middleton. $15 through Sept. 15th, late registration $25 through Oct. 7th. By phone with credit card, walk-on $35. Sponsored by non-profit Cedar Creek Battlefield Foundation. For information, CCBF, P.O. Box 229, Middletown, VA 22645, 888-628-1864,
OCTOBER 15, 16 Pamplin Historical Park's 9th Annual Symposium, "Great Controversies of Civil War History," at the Park in Petersburg. Speakers include James McPherson, John Coski, Richard Sommers, Peter Carmichael, George Rable and Will Greene. For information: 877-PAMPLIN or
OCTOBER 21, 22 Civil War Ghost Walk, Endview Plantation, Newport News, 7-10 p.m. Annual tour of Endview and its battlefield. For information, 757-887-1862,


Hanover County officials are involved in an effort to change
the  name  of the very popular "Dixie Days Festival" weekend
to something less offensive to the  ears  and  eyes  of  the

(Possibly,  they  may  also feel that radio stations serving
Hanover County should not play Dixieland Jazz unless  it  is
renamed Rebellion Jazz or something else less offensive. Who

"Dixie Days" is only two years  old,  but  is  bringing  out
thousands   of   residents  and  non-residents,  adults  and
children, young  and  old  to  experience  and  learn  about
Hanover   County's   War  Between  the  States  history  and

The word "Dixie" supposedly has its origins  in  the  French
"Dix,"  the  number  ten,  and  one  would  assume  that  it
originated in New Orleans where a ten  dollar  banknote  was
known as a Dixie.                                           

The   Oxford  English  Dictionary  definition  of  Dixie  is

1.  The southern states of the US, the South.               

2.  "a large iron kettle or pot in which stew, tea, etc., is
made or carried by soldiers." This is still in use today and
stems  from  the  Hindi  degci  (from  Persian  degca,   the
diminutive of deg iron pot.)                                

Ah,  words  are  wonderful  things  and  mean many different
things to many people!  One must be very  careful  in  using
them in order not to offend or arouse the ire of others.  In
this politically correct world of ours,  one  person,  upset
over one word such as "God" can, if he or she works hard and
is noisy enough, eliminate  the  usage  of  that  word  from
public documents, schools and public parks and buildings.   

Let  all of us, especially you who vote and elect in Hanover
County, make loud noises and write letters  to  the  elected
officials  of  the  county  expressing  our  indignation and
sorrow over the effort to eliminate DIXIE from the title  of
the  Dixie  Days  Festival.   Demand  that  the title remain
unchanged and suggest that the persons who are  offended  by
the word should simply choose not to attend the event.      

(Remember,  a  section  of  Hanover County's Studley Road is
cleaned up every year by Longstreet Camp's Compatriots.)    

		                            Your Editor


County Administrator Cecil R. "Rhu" Harris, Jr. 804-365-6005 HANOVER COUNTY BOARD OF SUPERVISORS Ashland District Timothy E. Earnst 804-798-9333 (h) Beaverdam District Aubrey M. Stanley, Jr. 804-449-6606 (h) 804-449-6606 (h-fax) Chickahominy District Robert R. Setliff 804-746-5553 (h) 804-746-8476 (w) 804-746-8476 (fax) Cold Harbor District E.J. Wade, Sr. 804-781-0044 (h) 804-781-0413 (fax) Henry District Charles D. MCGhee, Vice-Chairman 804-779-2875 (h) 804-779-7765 (h-fax) Mechanicsville District J. T. "Jack" Ward 804-746-9126 (h) 804-730-3546 (h-fax) South Anna District John E. Gordon, Jr. 804-798-3879 (h) 804-752-2040 (h-fax)


Francis Miles French/
By the flow of the inland river,
   Whence the fleets of iron have fled,
Where the blades of the grave grass quiver,
   Asleep are the ranks of the dead. 
   Under the sod and the dew, 
          Waiting the judgment day;
   Under the one the Blue,
          Under the other the Gray

These in the robings of glory,
      Those in the gloom of defeat.
All with the battle-blood gory,
      In the dusk of eternity meet.
      Under the sod and the dew,
              Waiting the judgment  day;
      Under the laurel the Blue,
              Under the willow the Gray.

From the silence of sorrowful hours
      The desolate mourners go,
Loving laden with flowers
       Alike for the friend and the foe
       Under the sod and the dew,
               Waiting the judgment day;
       Under the roses the Blue,
               Under the lilies, the Gray

So with an equal splendor,
      The morning sunrays fall,
With a touch impartially tender.
      On the blossoms blooming for all;
            Under the sod and the dew,
            Waiting the judgment day. 
       Broidered with gold the Blue,
              Mellowed with gold the gray.

So when the summer calleth,
     On the forest and field of grain,
With an equal murmur falleth
    The cooling drip of the rain;
    Under the sod and the dew,
            Waiting the judgment day;
    Wet with the rain, the Blue ,
           Wet with the rain the Gray.

Sadly, but not with upbraiding,
      The generous deed was done,
In the storm of the years that are fading
      No braver battle was won;
             Under the sod and the dew,
             Waiting the judgment day;
      Under the blossoms, the Blue,
              Under the garlands, the Gray.

No more shall the war cry sever,
      Or the winding rivers be red;
They banish our anger forever
      When they laurel the graves of our dead!
      Under the sod and the dew,
              Waiting the judgment day;
      Love and tears for the Blue,
              Tears and love for the Gray.

The women of Columbus, Mississippi were the inspiration  for
this  poem.   They  lay  flowers upon the graves of both the
Blue and the Gray.                                          

The poem was included  in  the  1878  McGuffy's  Reader  and
literally  millions of school children memorized and recited


We are concerned today over the rising prices of fuel,  food
and all of the other necessities of life.  Money does not go
as far as it used to, particularly to people who live  on  a
fixed income.                                               

Many feel that speculation is rampant in today's society but
pause for a moment to read what John Beauchamp  Jones  wrote
in his Rebel Clerks Dairy:                                  

"January  30th (1863) - I cut the following from yesterday's

"The Results of  Extortion  and  Speculation.-The  state  of
affairs  brought  about  by  the  speculating  and extortion
practiced upon the public cannot be better illustrated  than
by  the  following  grocery  bill  for  one week for a small
family, in which the prices before the war and those of  the
present are compared:                                       

1860    Bacon, 10 lbs. at 12 1/2›                       $1.25
        Flour, 30 lbs. at 5›                             1.50
        Sugar, 5 lbs. at 8›                               .40
        Coffee, 4 lbs. at 12 1/2›                         .50
        Tea (green), 1/2 lb. at $1                        .50
        Lard, 4 lbs. at 12 1/2›                           .50
        Butter, 3 lbs. at 25›                             .75
        Meal, 1 pk. at 25›                                .25
        Candles, 2 lbs. at 15›                            .30
        Soap, 5 lbs. at 10›                               .50
        Pepper and salt (about)                           .10
        Total                                           $6.55

1863    Bacon, 10 lbs. at $1                            10.00
        Flour, 30 lbs. at 12 1/2›                        3.75
        Sugar, 5 lbs. at $1.15                           5.75
        Coffee, 4 lbs. at $5                            20.00
        Tea, (green), 1/2 lb. at $16                     8.00
        Lard, 4 lbs. at $1                               4.00
        Butter, 3 lbs. at $1.75                          5.25
        Meal, 1 pk. at $1                                1.00
        Candles, 2 lbs. at $1.25                         2.50
        Soap, 5 lbs. at $1.10                            5.50
        Pepper and salt (about)                          2.50
        Total                                          $68.25

"So much we owe the speculators, who have stayed at home  to
prey upon the necessities of their fellow citizens."        

" August 13th.  (1864)-Flour is falling.  It is now $200 per
barrel.-$500 a few weeks ago; and bacon is falling in  price
also,  from $11 to $6 per pound.  A commission merchant said
to me, yesterday, that there was at least  eighteen  months'
supply  (for  the  people)  of  breadstuffs and meats in the
city; and pointing to the upper windows  at  the  corner  of
Thirteenth  and  Cary  Streets, he revealed the ends of many
barrels piled above the windows.  He  said  that  flour  had
been there two years held for "still higher prices." Such is
the avarice of man.  Such is war.  And  such  the  greed  of
extortionists, even in the midst of famine-and famine in the
midst of plenty!"                                           





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